Proteins are polypeptide chain of amino acids. Amino acids are the bipolar molecules bearing acidic as well as basic groups in terminals. These are functional reacting groups. Carboxylic group of one amino acid when reacts with the amine group of other and so on then long chain of polypeptide is formed known as proteins. 21 amino acids linked together in specific manner in order to give rise to the protein structure.
Proteins have vital role in living organisms. It is responsible for the growth and development of entire body. It is the major constituent of skin, hair and nails. More over muscular system of body is formed of proteins. Contractions as well as dialation of muscles are due to proteins. It is also present in bones and cartilages. There are basically four types of proteins according to its structure. These are primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary. Complexity in the protein structure increases as we move from primary to quaternary structure of protein. Protein is major and vital constituent of our diet. It must be in diet and we can take abundant of proteins from different sources. Pulses, soybean, egg, meat and sea food is rich in protein. Protein when taken in side as food then it is broken down in to smaller particles amino acids and peptides, enzymes responsible for its catalysis are also protein.
Catalysts are the enzymes which increases the rate of reaction. Hormones are proteins and these regulate all the body functions. Protein forms the major structural constituent of the body. It is responsible to transport oxygen throughout the body through haemoglobin, which is also a protein. Proteins are also act as antibodies and strengthen the immune system. When the three dimensional structure of protein such as, secondary, tertiary and quaternary is heated or subjected to chemical reaction then denaturation of protein occurs. They are converted in to primary structure but the peptide chain remains intact as in primary structure. Only hydrogen bonds get destructed.
More over during the denaturation process function and property of the protein get affected. The most common example of denaturation process is straightening of hair through heat and chemical reaction, boiling of egg and burning of hair. There are so many compounds can be derived from proteins and are used as medicinal value. Thus proteins are really vital for living organisms. These perform major functions of body.